This is an account that focuses on the fascinating history of the ancient world. Follow me for more content, I will be posting daily. β˜₯ Όρα το μέλλον
An ancient bronze horse head that inspired Renaissance artists

The equine bronze protome known as the Medici Riccardi horse head in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale of Florence is likely a surviving part of a Hellenistic life-size equestrian sculptural group, which has been dated around the second half of the fourth century BC. The sculpture entered the antiquarian collections of the Medici in the fifteenth century and was cited for the first time in 1495 as part of Lorenzo il Magnifico’s antiquarian collection, although it had certainly been found well before that. Its close resemblance to the colossal Carafa horse head in  #Naples, executed by Donatello between 1456 and 1458 in imitation of this original, provides an indirect terminus ante quem. In 1672 the artwork was restored and adapted as a fountain mouth by Bartolomeo Cennini. After being moved to Palermo in 1800 in order to avoid confiscation by  #Napoleon, the head returned to Florence in 1815, when it was displayed at the Galleria degli Uffizi. Finally, in 1890, it was transferred to the Regio Museo Archeologico, now the Museo Archeologico Nazionale of  #Florence.

Horses were first domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes during the 4th millennium B.C.E. and spread to and throughout the Near East and  #Mediterranean from there. In Greece, horses became important in life generally and especially in warfare, racing, traveling, and hunting. Horses were expensive to purchase and to maintain and, for these reasons, ownership was largely limited to the wealthier members of ancient communities. In fact, the second-highest property class in Athens was called the "hippeis," or "horse-owners" in the constitution of Solon.  #Horses therefore became symbols of high social status in ancient  #Greek society. The importance of horses in Greek life is illustrated by the frequency of their depiction in art throughout all periods of Greek history. The  #Greeks believed that horses were created by Poseidon, god of the sea, and occasionally horses were sacrificed to the god by drowning.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #rome #egypt 

Date: 4 cent. BC

Florence Museum,  #Italy

An ancient bronze horse head that inspired Renaissance artists The equine bronze protome known as the Medici Riccardi horse head in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale of Florence is likely a surviving part of a Hellenistic life-size equestrian sculptural group, which has been dated around the second half of the fourth century BC. The sculpture entered the antiquarian collections of the Medici in the fifteenth century and was cited for the first time in 1495 as part of Lorenzo il Magnifico’s antiquarian collection, although it had certainly been found well before that. Its close resemblance to the colossal Carafa horse head in #naples, executed by Donatello between 1456 and 1458 in imitation of this original, provides an indirect terminus ante quem. In 1672 the artwork was restored and adapted as a fountain mouth by Bartolomeo Cennini. After being moved to Palermo in 1800 in order to avoid confiscation by #napoleon, the head returned to Florence in 1815, when it was displayed at the Galleria degli Uffizi. Finally, in 1890, it was transferred to the Regio Museo Archeologico, now the Museo Archeologico Nazionale of #Florence. Horses were first domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes during the 4th millennium B.C.E. and spread to and throughout the Near East and #mediterranean from there. In Greece, horses became important in life generally and especially in warfare, racing, traveling, and hunting. Horses were expensive to purchase and to maintain and, for these reasons, ownership was largely limited to the wealthier members of ancient communities. In fact, the second-highest property class in Athens was called the "hippeis," or "horse-owners" in the constitution of Solon. #horses therefore became symbols of high social status in ancient #greek society. The importance of horses in Greek life is illustrated by the frequency of their depiction in art throughout all periods of Greek history. The #Greeks believed that horses were created by Poseidon, god of the sea, and occasionally horses were sacrificed to the god by drowning. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #rome #egypt Date: 4 cent. BC Florence Museum, #italy

1 254
10
3 days ago
World Refugee Day

Tent village in the shadows of the Temple of Hephaestus the best preserved ancient temple in Athens, Greece where Greek refugees make thier [sic] homes. After the defeat of Greece in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) approximately one million Greeks were forced to leave their homes in Anatolia for Greece due to the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey which formalized the population transfer and barred the return of the refugees. The descendants of the refugees have found hundreds of organizations and institutes in Greece and in the diaspora to promote their civilization and to keep in touch with their roots. Various museums in Greece (such as the Benaki Museum) display artifacts from Asia Minor, Pontus, Cappadocia and Eastern Thrace to denote the Greek presence and emphasize the origins of about 40% of the population of modern Greece.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities 
 #worldrefugeeday 

Date: 1922

Library of Congress, USA

World Refugee Day Tent village in the shadows of the Temple of Hephaestus the best preserved ancient temple in Athens, Greece where Greek refugees make thier [sic] homes. After the defeat of Greece in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) approximately one million Greeks were forced to leave their homes in Anatolia for Greece due to the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey which formalized the population transfer and barred the return of the refugees. The descendants of the refugees have found hundreds of organizations and institutes in Greece and in the diaspora to promote their civilization and to keep in touch with their roots. Various museums in Greece (such as the Benaki Museum) display artifacts from Asia Minor, Pontus, Cappadocia and Eastern Thrace to denote the Greek presence and emphasize the origins of about 40% of the population of modern Greece. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities #worldrefugeeday Date: 1922 Library of Congress, USA

386
3
3 days ago
Ancient Greek Helmets from Olympia

Ancient Greek Helmets from Classical Period a time between the Persian Wars at the beginning of the fifth century B.C. and the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. The classical period was an era of war and conflictβ€”first between the Greeks and the  #Persians, then between the Athenians and the Spartansβ€”but it was also an era of unprecedented political and cultural achievement. Besides the  #Parthenon and Greek tragedy, classical  #Greece brought us the historian Herodotus, the physician Hippokrates and the philosopher Socrates. It also brought us the political reforms that are ancient Greece’s most enduring contribution to the modern world: the system known as demokratia, or β€œrule by the people.”The defeat of the Persians marked the beginning of Athenian political, economic and cultural dominance. In 507 B.C., the Athenian nobleman Cleisthenes had overthrown the last of the autocratic tyrants and devised a new system of citizen self-governance that he called demokratia. 

In Cleisthenes’ democratic system, every male citizen older than 18 was eligible to join the ekklesia, or Assembly, the sovereign governing body of Athens. In the ancient Greek world, warfare was seen as a necessary evil of the human condition. Whether it be small frontier skirmishes between neighbouring city-states, lengthy city-sieges, civil wars, or large-scale battles between multi-alliance blocks on land and sea, the vast rewards of war could outweigh the costs in material and lives. Whilst there were long periods of peace and many examples of friendly alliances, the powerful motives of territorial expansion, war booty, revenge, honour, and the defence of liberty ensured that throughout the Archaic and Classical periods the Greeks were regularly engaged in warfare both at home and abroad.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

Date:5th or 4th century BCE

Olympia Museum, Greece

Ancient Greek Helmets from Olympia Ancient Greek Helmets from Classical Period a time between the Persian Wars at the beginning of the fifth century B.C. and the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. The classical period was an era of war and conflictβ€”first between the Greeks and the #persians, then between the Athenians and the Spartansβ€”but it was also an era of unprecedented political and cultural achievement. Besides the #Parthenon and Greek tragedy, classical #greece brought us the historian Herodotus, the physician Hippokrates and the philosopher Socrates. It also brought us the political reforms that are ancient Greece’s most enduring contribution to the modern world: the system known as demokratia, or β€œrule by the people.”The defeat of the Persians marked the beginning of Athenian political, economic and cultural dominance. In 507 B.C., the Athenian nobleman Cleisthenes had overthrown the last of the autocratic tyrants and devised a new system of citizen self-governance that he called demokratia. In Cleisthenes’ democratic system, every male citizen older than 18 was eligible to join the ekklesia, or Assembly, the sovereign governing body of Athens. In the ancient Greek world, warfare was seen as a necessary evil of the human condition. Whether it be small frontier skirmishes between neighbouring city-states, lengthy city-sieges, civil wars, or large-scale battles between multi-alliance blocks on land and sea, the vast rewards of war could outweigh the costs in material and lives. Whilst there were long periods of peace and many examples of friendly alliances, the powerful motives of territorial expansion, war booty, revenge, honour, and the defence of liberty ensured that throughout the Archaic and Classical periods the Greeks were regularly engaged in warfare both at home and abroad. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities Date:5th or 4th century BCE Olympia Museum, Greece

1 651
17
3 days ago
The face of a Mycenaen Goddess

Mycenaean plaster head of a goddess. The head has locks of hair that fall on the forehead and the cheeks, the chin and the forehead of the goddess are decorated with red dotted rosettes a motif with symbolic and religious meaning. This beautiful artifact was discovered in  the Cult Centre in the  #Acropolis of Mycenae and it dates from the  13rd century BC a time when the Lion Gate and the Treasury of Atreus are built in Mycenae. It is a time of peace and prosperity in the  #Aegean. Mycenaean imports to the Levant peak. The Acropolis of Athens is developed: towards the end of the century, a Cyclopean wall four to six meters thick, known as the β€œpelasgic wall”, is constructed, as well as a well to supply the citadel with water. Linear B tablets are created in  #Pylos. The artifact is currently housed in the National Archaeological  #Museum of Athens in Greece one of the greatest museums in the world and contains the richest collection of artifacts from Greek antiquity worldwide.

The Mycenaean civilization flourished in the Late Bronze Age, peaking from the 15th to the 13th century BCE. The Mycenaeans extended their influence throughout the Peloponnese in Greece and across the Aegean from Crete to the  #Cycladic islands. They are named after their chief city of  #Mycenae in the Argolid of the northeast  #Peloponnese. The Mycenaeans were influenced by the earlier Minoan civilization which had spread from its origins at  #Knossos,  #Crete to include the wider  #Aegean. Architecture, art and religious practices were assimilated and adapted to better express the perhaps more militaristic and austere Mycenaean culture. The culture made a lasting impression on later Greeks in the Archaic and Classical periods, most tangibly in their myths of Bronze Age heroes like Achilles and Odysseus and their exploits in the Trojan War. The Mycenaeans came to dominate most of mainland  #Greece and several islands, extending trade relations to other Bronze Age cultures in such places as  #Cyprus, the Levant, and  #Egypt. 

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

 #France⁣⁣⁣ #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece

Date: 13rd century BCE

Photo via: @archaeologist.gr

The face of a Mycenaen Goddess Mycenaean plaster head of a goddess. The head has locks of hair that fall on the forehead and the cheeks, the chin and the forehead of the goddess are decorated with red dotted rosettes a motif with symbolic and religious meaning. This beautiful artifact was discovered in the Cult Centre in the #acropolis of Mycenae and it dates from the 13rd century BC a time when the Lion Gate and the Treasury of Atreus are built in Mycenae. It is a time of peace and prosperity in the #Aegean. Mycenaean imports to the Levant peak. The Acropolis of Athens is developed: towards the end of the century, a Cyclopean wall four to six meters thick, known as the β€œpelasgic wall”, is constructed, as well as a well to supply the citadel with water. Linear B tablets are created in #Pylos. The artifact is currently housed in the National Archaeological #museum of Athens in Greece one of the greatest museums in the world and contains the richest collection of artifacts from Greek antiquity worldwide. The Mycenaean civilization flourished in the Late Bronze Age, peaking from the 15th to the 13th century BCE. The Mycenaeans extended their influence throughout the Peloponnese in Greece and across the Aegean from Crete to the #cycladic islands. They are named after their chief city of #mycenae in the Argolid of the northeast #Peloponnese. The Mycenaeans were influenced by the earlier Minoan civilization which had spread from its origins at #Knossos, #crete to include the wider #Aegean. Architecture, art and religious practices were assimilated and adapted to better express the perhaps more militaristic and austere Mycenaean culture. The culture made a lasting impression on later Greeks in the Archaic and Classical periods, most tangibly in their myths of Bronze Age heroes like Achilles and Odysseus and their exploits in the Trojan War. The Mycenaeans came to dominate most of mainland #greece and several islands, extending trade relations to other Bronze Age cultures in such places as #cyprus, the Levant, and #Egypt. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds #france⁣⁣⁣ #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece Date: 13rd century BCE Photo via: @archaeologist.gr

631
6
4 days ago
Large Greek Bronze Pig

Looking straight forward, open mouthed, and with ears pointed back, the cast bronze pig stands securely on its legs with prominent teats hanging from the underside of its well-rounded torso. In Greece the breeding of domestic pigs was one of the earliest and most important agricultural practices. Thus in Homer’s  #Odyssey the swineherd Euamaios receives an appropriate literary mention. Mythological references to the pig occur with the arrivalof Aeneas in  #Italy, when he encounters a white sow with thirty white piglets, which prompts him to settle there. The most important role of domesticated animals in the religious rituals of Greek and Italic cultures was that of sacrificial victims. Pigs, along with sheep, goats, and cattle were among the commonest species used in this manner. The pig was one of the most important sacrificial animals for Greek deities, and piglets were prescribed for ceremonial purifications. Most of the meat consumed from these animals likely would have been provided by ritual sacrifice.

In Magna Graecia pigs in particular were sacrificed to the goddess Demeter, following cult rituals established like those at the sanctuary of  #Demeter in  #Eleusis in mainland  #Greece. Countless small representations of the animal and terracotta statuettes depicting figures holding small piglets were found in sanctuaries of the goddess. These offerings in miniature form were substitutes for offerings of the real animal. It is possible that this bronze example, being the actual size of a piglet, functioned in a similar manner, as a more valuable and lasting votive offering that took the place of the sacrificial animal. The artifact dates from the 5th Century B.C. - 3rd Century B.C a time when the Ancient Greek civilization flourished under the leadership of able rulers like  #Alexander the Great and  #Pericles.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

Date: 5th Century B.C. - 3rd Century BCE

For auction at Phoenix Ancient Art

Large Greek Bronze Pig Looking straight forward, open mouthed, and with ears pointed back, the cast bronze pig stands securely on its legs with prominent teats hanging from the underside of its well-rounded torso. In Greece the breeding of domestic pigs was one of the earliest and most important agricultural practices. Thus in Homer’s #odyssey the swineherd Euamaios receives an appropriate literary mention. Mythological references to the pig occur with the arrivalof Aeneas in #italy, when he encounters a white sow with thirty white piglets, which prompts him to settle there. The most important role of domesticated animals in the religious rituals of Greek and Italic cultures was that of sacrificial victims. Pigs, along with sheep, goats, and cattle were among the commonest species used in this manner. The pig was one of the most important sacrificial animals for Greek deities, and piglets were prescribed for ceremonial purifications. Most of the meat consumed from these animals likely would have been provided by ritual sacrifice. In Magna Graecia pigs in particular were sacrificed to the goddess Demeter, following cult rituals established like those at the sanctuary of #Demeter in #eleusis in mainland #Greece. Countless small representations of the animal and terracotta statuettes depicting figures holding small piglets were found in sanctuaries of the goddess. These offerings in miniature form were substitutes for offerings of the real animal. It is possible that this bronze example, being the actual size of a piglet, functioned in a similar manner, as a more valuable and lasting votive offering that took the place of the sacrificial animal. The artifact dates from the 5th Century B.C. - 3rd Century B.C a time when the Ancient Greek civilization flourished under the leadership of able rulers like #Alexander the Great and #Pericles. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities Date: 5th Century B.C. - 3rd Century BCE For auction at Phoenix Ancient Art

480
1
4 days ago
The oldest coins in the world

The kingdom of Lydia, a province in Western Asia Minor, was a neighbour of the Ionian  #Greeks settling along the West Coast of what is Turkey today. The coinage of the  #Lydian kingdom is known mostly for the coins of its last king, Croesus (561–546 BC). Croesus’ bimetallic coinage consisted of two parallel series in gold and silver. His forefathers, however, had issued electrum coins. Electrum is an alloy of gold and silver with a low admixture of copper (to harden the coin). Lydian electrum coins were found in excavations together with the earliest electrum coins minted by the Greek cities of Ionia. Thus the royal Lydian coinage emerged among the earliest coins altogether, perhaps forming the first series of coins from the Western hemisphere. The birth of coinage is still shrouded in mystery, as the majority of the early electrum coinages cannot be attributed to specific mints. The coins of  #Ephesos can be identified by the emblem of a bee, likewise those of Miletos by the reclining lion, or the coins of Phokaia by the seal. 

However, there are some 400 series of early electrum coins, many of them can be roughly classified and dated, yet we do not know who had them minted, not to mention the particular occasion and historical circumstances. This beautiful golden coin was minted in  #Lydia under the authority of Croesus the last king of Lydia who reigned for 14 years until his defeat by the Persian king  #Cyrus the Great. The lion on this coin is seen as a symbol of royalty. The two deep impressions were created by a hammer, used to punch the image of the lion and bull into the blank coin. The forepart of a lion was shown facing the forepart of a bull on the obverse (front), while the reverse consisted of a simple punch. The coins were issued in several denominations. Ancient writers mention a gold coin called a croesid, and it may well be this coin to which they refer. 

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

Date: made around 550 BCE

British Museum, UK

The oldest coins in the world The kingdom of Lydia, a province in Western Asia Minor, was a neighbour of the Ionian #Greeks settling along the West Coast of what is Turkey today. The coinage of the #lydian kingdom is known mostly for the coins of its last king, Croesus (561–546 BC). Croesus’ bimetallic coinage consisted of two parallel series in gold and silver. His forefathers, however, had issued electrum coins. Electrum is an alloy of gold and silver with a low admixture of copper (to harden the coin). Lydian electrum coins were found in excavations together with the earliest electrum coins minted by the Greek cities of Ionia. Thus the royal Lydian coinage emerged among the earliest coins altogether, perhaps forming the first series of coins from the Western hemisphere. The birth of coinage is still shrouded in mystery, as the majority of the early electrum coinages cannot be attributed to specific mints. The coins of #ephesos can be identified by the emblem of a bee, likewise those of Miletos by the reclining lion, or the coins of Phokaia by the seal. However, there are some 400 series of early electrum coins, many of them can be roughly classified and dated, yet we do not know who had them minted, not to mention the particular occasion and historical circumstances. This beautiful golden coin was minted in #lydia under the authority of Croesus the last king of Lydia who reigned for 14 years until his defeat by the Persian king #Cyrus the Great. The lion on this coin is seen as a symbol of royalty. The two deep impressions were created by a hammer, used to punch the image of the lion and bull into the blank coin. The forepart of a lion was shown facing the forepart of a bull on the obverse (front), while the reverse consisted of a simple punch. The coins were issued in several denominations. Ancient writers mention a gold coin called a croesid, and it may well be this coin to which they refer. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities Date: made around 550 BCE British Museum, UK

642
6
5 days ago
Portrait of a man with a mole on his nose

Mummy portraits or  #Fayum mummy portraits are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. The so called Faiyum portraits, are typical products of the multicultural, multiethnic society of Roman Egypt. This style of Roman-era mummy portrait has been found all across Egypt, but is most common in the Faiyum Basin area, particularly around the rich Roman city of Antinoopolis, whose upper-class inhabitants would have been able to afford the expensive mummification. Most of them are painted in the elaborate encaustic technique, in which pigments were mixed with hot or cold beeswax and other ingredients, such as egg, resin, and linseed oil. This versatile medium allowed artists to create images that in many ways are akin to oil paintings.  This manner of painting, which is very different from the traditional Egyptian style but was well known in Graeco-Roman Egypt, originated in Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.

Although the painting technique on Faiyum portrait panels is  #Greek, their use is entirely Egyptian. When a person died, the portrait panel was placed over the face of the mummy with parts of the outermost wrapping holding it in place. This implies Egyptian  #beliefs about the afterlife. After having been ruled for three hundred years by a Greek dynasty and a century or more by Roman administrators, Roman  #Egypt was an extremely diverse civilization. About 900 of these portraits are known. So many of the portraits depict children, that many believed they were simply reusing old portraits on the mummies. But analysis of the bodies shows many really were as young as their picture suggests. In this portrait we can see a man with the mole is turned from a three-quarters right position to direct his arresting gaze toward the viewer. His enormous eyes have highlights and are further emphasized by pink paint along the lids. Pink was also used to shade the long nose. His flesh is a warm peach color.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

 #France⁣⁣⁣ #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #Rome 

Date: 130–150 AD

THE MET,  #USA

Portrait of a man with a mole on his nose Mummy portraits or #fayum mummy portraits are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. The so called Faiyum portraits, are typical products of the multicultural, multiethnic society of Roman Egypt. This style of Roman-era mummy portrait has been found all across Egypt, but is most common in the Faiyum Basin area, particularly around the rich Roman city of Antinoopolis, whose upper-class inhabitants would have been able to afford the expensive mummification. Most of them are painted in the elaborate encaustic technique, in which pigments were mixed with hot or cold beeswax and other ingredients, such as egg, resin, and linseed oil. This versatile medium allowed artists to create images that in many ways are akin to oil paintings. This manner of painting, which is very different from the traditional Egyptian style but was well known in Graeco-Roman Egypt, originated in Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. Although the painting technique on Faiyum portrait panels is #greek, their use is entirely Egyptian. When a person died, the portrait panel was placed over the face of the mummy with parts of the outermost wrapping holding it in place. This implies Egyptian #beliefs about the afterlife. After having been ruled for three hundred years by a Greek dynasty and a century or more by Roman administrators, Roman #egypt was an extremely diverse civilization. About 900 of these portraits are known. So many of the portraits depict children, that many believed they were simply reusing old portraits on the mummies. But analysis of the bodies shows many really were as young as their picture suggests. In this portrait we can see a man with the mole is turned from a three-quarters right position to direct his arresting gaze toward the viewer. His enormous eyes have highlights and are further emphasized by pink paint along the lids. Pink was also used to shade the long nose. His flesh is a warm peach color. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds #france⁣⁣⁣ #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #rome Date: 130–150 AD THE MET, #usa

776
6
6 days ago
Dior Cruise 2022 

Dior presented a multi-faceted tribute in the place where the  #Olympic Games were revived the Panathenaic Stadium, also known as the Kallimarmaro, focusing on the bicentennial of the Greek Revolution, honoring the influence of the Greek spirit in the evolution of  #European civilization. Blending tradition and modernity, the Dior Cruise Collection highlighted traditional Greek handicraft and the ancient Greek aesthetic values of light (phos) and beauty (kallos). For this collection, Dior collaborated with Greek creators from around the country specializing in the arts of weaving, embroidery and silk, as well as in pottery and jewelry, while also enlisting the support of local musicians and crew. β€œThe idea to show inside the stadium was my obsession, because I think it speaks about the relationship that the clothes have with the body β€” a body that is a performing body,” Maria Grazia Chiuri an Italian fashion designer and creative director at Dior said of the venue, which hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the first modern Olympics in 1896.

The spectacular Panathenaic Stadium was originally constructed in the ancient times to host the famous  #Panathenaic Games, which were held to honor goddess Athena, the protector of the city. At first, the stadium had wooden seats, but in 329 BC the governor  #Lycourgos remade it with marble. In 140 BC, the Roman general Herodes  #Atticus renovated it and obtained a capacity of 50,000 seated people. Centuries passed and the stadium was neglected. In the Medieval times, it was used as a quarry and it suffered various damages. However, in the late 19th century (1986), it was renovated to host the first Modern Olympic Games that were held in Athens. The reconstruction was assigned to architects Anastasios Metaxas and Ernst Ziller. The finding was provided by the Greek benefactor George Averoff, whose marble statue stands at the entrance of the stadium.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits  #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

Β© Photos: @GMessaritakis

@Dior  #DiorCruise  #Dior

Dior Cruise 2022 Dior presented a multi-faceted tribute in the place where the #olympic Games were revived the Panathenaic Stadium, also known as the Kallimarmaro, focusing on the bicentennial of the Greek Revolution, honoring the influence of the Greek spirit in the evolution of #European civilization. Blending tradition and modernity, the Dior Cruise Collection highlighted traditional Greek handicraft and the ancient Greek aesthetic values of light (phos) and beauty (kallos). For this collection, Dior collaborated with Greek creators from around the country specializing in the arts of weaving, embroidery and silk, as well as in pottery and jewelry, while also enlisting the support of local musicians and crew. β€œThe idea to show inside the stadium was my obsession, because I think it speaks about the relationship that the clothes have with the body β€” a body that is a performing body,” Maria Grazia Chiuri an Italian fashion designer and creative director at Dior said of the venue, which hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the first modern Olympics in 1896. The spectacular Panathenaic Stadium was originally constructed in the ancient times to host the famous #panathenaic Games, which were held to honor goddess Athena, the protector of the city. At first, the stadium had wooden seats, but in 329 BC the governor #Lycourgos remade it with marble. In 140 BC, the Roman general Herodes #atticus renovated it and obtained a capacity of 50,000 seated people. Centuries passed and the stadium was neglected. In the Medieval times, it was used as a quarry and it suffered various damages. However, in the late 19th century (1986), it was renovated to host the first Modern Olympic Games that were held in Athens. The reconstruction was assigned to architects Anastasios Metaxas and Ernst Ziller. The finding was provided by the Greek benefactor George Averoff, whose marble statue stands at the entrance of the stadium. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities Β© Photos: @GMessaritakis @Dior #DiorCruise #dior

388
4
6 days ago
An eye to a lost world....

In 365 AD in the Eastern Mediterranean, a big earthquake occurred with an assumed epicentre near Crete. Geologists today estimate the undersea earthquake to have been a magnitude 8.0 or higher. It caused widespread destruction in central and southern Greece, northern Libya, Egypt, Cyprus, Sicily, and Spain. On  #Crete, nearly all towns were destroyed. The Crete earthquake was followed by a tsunami which devastated the southern and eastern coasts of the  #Mediterranean, particularly Libya,  #Alexandria and the Nile Delta, killing thousands and hurling ships 3 km (1.9 mi) inland. The quake left a deep impression on the late antique mind, and numerous writers of the time referred to the event in their works. In Alexandria Antirhodos an island an island in the eastern harbor of Alexandria, Egypt, on which a Ptolemaic Egyptian palace was sited sank due to the tsunami caused by the Cretan Earthquake.

Descriptions of the island were recorded in classical antiquity by Greek geographers and historians. Strabo described a royal house on  #Antirhodos in 27 BC and wrote that the island's name ("counter-Rhodes") derived from the island's rivalry with the island of  #Rhodes. Antirhodos was part of Alexandria's ancient royal port called the Portus Magnus, which also included parts of the Lochias peninsula in the East and the island of  #Pharos in the West. The Portus Magnus was abandoned and left as an open bay after an earthquake in the 8th century. In 1996, underwater archaeology in the harbour of Alexandria conducted by Franck Goddio located the island and found that it was on the opposite side of the harbour from where it was placed by  #Strabo. The excavations showed that the island had been occupied from before the founding of Alexandria and that it was totally levelled and prepared for construction around 250BC.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology

πŸ“Έ Photo: A diver eye-to-eye with a sphinx made out of black granite. The face of the sphinx is believed to represent Ptolemy XII, father of the famous Cleopatra VII. The sphinx was found during excavations in the harbour of Alexandria.

An eye to a lost world.... In 365 AD in the Eastern Mediterranean, a big earthquake occurred with an assumed epicentre near Crete. Geologists today estimate the undersea earthquake to have been a magnitude 8.0 or higher. It caused widespread destruction in central and southern Greece, northern Libya, Egypt, Cyprus, Sicily, and Spain. On #crete, nearly all towns were destroyed. The Crete earthquake was followed by a tsunami which devastated the southern and eastern coasts of the #mediterranean, particularly Libya, #alexandria and the Nile Delta, killing thousands and hurling ships 3 km (1.9 mi) inland. The quake left a deep impression on the late antique mind, and numerous writers of the time referred to the event in their works. In Alexandria Antirhodos an island an island in the eastern harbor of Alexandria, Egypt, on which a Ptolemaic Egyptian palace was sited sank due to the tsunami caused by the Cretan Earthquake. Descriptions of the island were recorded in classical antiquity by Greek geographers and historians. Strabo described a royal house on #Antirhodos in 27 BC and wrote that the island's name ("counter-Rhodes") derived from the island's rivalry with the island of #Rhodes. Antirhodos was part of Alexandria's ancient royal port called the Portus Magnus, which also included parts of the Lochias peninsula in the East and the island of #pharos in the West. The Portus Magnus was abandoned and left as an open bay after an earthquake in the 8th century. In 1996, underwater archaeology in the harbour of Alexandria conducted by Franck Goddio located the island and found that it was on the opposite side of the harbour from where it was placed by #Strabo. The excavations showed that the island had been occupied from before the founding of Alexandria and that it was totally levelled and prepared for construction around 250BC. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology πŸ“Έ Photo: A diver eye-to-eye with a sphinx made out of black granite. The face of the sphinx is believed to represent Ptolemy XII, father of the famous Cleopatra VII. The sphinx was found during excavations in the harbour of Alexandria.

411
2
6 days ago
The Etruscan "Phallus" vase

The shape of the cup is derived from Etruscan bucchero models. The decoration shows influences from both East Greece and the Greek mainland. Most noteworthy is the phallos bird that was popular in Athenian vase-painting during the second half of the sixth century B.C. In traditional Greek mythology, Hermes, god of boundaries and exchange is considered to be a phallic deity by association with representations of him on herms  featuring a phallus. There is no scholarly consensus on this depiction and it would be speculation to consider Hermes a type of fertility god. Pan, son of Hermes, was often depicted as having an exaggerated erect phallus.  #Phallus was seen in ancient times as an extremely important symbol. Greeks, Romans and other peoples decorated, among others city ​​walls, houses and baths with penises. Among the  #Romans,  #Egyptians, Semitic Arabs and Hebrews, the custom of swearing on their own crotch was even adopted. Most often, person who made the oath held his own crotch. 

The worship of this symbol is still mentioned by Augustine from the turn of the 4th and 5th centuries CE, when the Roman Empire was largely Christian. The priest reluctantly described the annual village phallic rites taking place in Italy. It was also customary to bury wooden phalluses in the ground, which was also done by  #Christians themselves. The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE. The culture was renowned in antiquity for its rich mineral resources and as a major Mediterranean trading power. Much of its culture and even history was either obliterated or assimilated into that of its conqueror, Rome. Nevertheless, surviving  #Etruscan tombs, their contents and their wall paintings, as well as the Roman adoption of certain Etruscan clothing, religious practices, and architecture, are convincing testament to the great prosperity and significant contribution to Mediterranean culture achieved by Italy's first great civilization.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #rome

Date: last quarter of the 6th century B.C

THE MET, USA

The Etruscan "Phallus" vase The shape of the cup is derived from Etruscan bucchero models. The decoration shows influences from both East Greece and the Greek mainland. Most noteworthy is the phallos bird that was popular in Athenian vase-painting during the second half of the sixth century B.C. In traditional Greek mythology, Hermes, god of boundaries and exchange is considered to be a phallic deity by association with representations of him on herms featuring a phallus. There is no scholarly consensus on this depiction and it would be speculation to consider Hermes a type of fertility god. Pan, son of Hermes, was often depicted as having an exaggerated erect phallus. #phallus was seen in ancient times as an extremely important symbol. Greeks, Romans and other peoples decorated, among others city ​​walls, houses and baths with penises. Among the #Romans, #egyptians, Semitic Arabs and Hebrews, the custom of swearing on their own crotch was even adopted. Most often, person who made the oath held his own crotch. The worship of this symbol is still mentioned by Augustine from the turn of the 4th and 5th centuries CE, when the Roman Empire was largely Christian. The priest reluctantly described the annual village phallic rites taking place in Italy. It was also customary to bury wooden phalluses in the ground, which was also done by #christians themselves. The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE. The culture was renowned in antiquity for its rich mineral resources and as a major Mediterranean trading power. Much of its culture and even history was either obliterated or assimilated into that of its conqueror, Rome. Nevertheless, surviving #etruscan tombs, their contents and their wall paintings, as well as the Roman adoption of certain Etruscan clothing, religious practices, and architecture, are convincing testament to the great prosperity and significant contribution to Mediterranean culture achieved by Italy's first great civilization. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #rome Date: last quarter of the 6th century B.C THE MET, USA

515
6
6 days ago
Pitcher (Oinochoe) of an African Head

This jug (oinochoe) belongs to a tradition of Greek β€œhead vases” – drinking or pouring vessels that incorporate a hollow mold-made head. Athenian potters and sculptors regularly used the same clay and the same kilns, and these vases – part figure, part vessel - demonstrate that the two crafts overlapped and interacted. Furthermore, the use of a mold meant that head vases could be produced in series, and other examples have been attributed to the same workshop that produced the Getty vase. The most popular face for fifth-century Athenian head vases is that of a young woman. Head vases in the form of Black Africans are much less common. Besides the use of black gloss for their skin, the faces are often rendered with stereotyped physical features - thick protruding lips, flared nostrils, and tightly-curled hair.

The Greeks used the term Aithiops for peoples who lived in the  #Sahara and south of  #Egypt. The word translates as β€œburnt face”, and mythical tales suggest that Greek awareness of Black Africans was deeply rooted.  #Homer described the Aethiopians as β€œblameless” (Iliad 1.423) and centuries later, the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484-425 B.C.) observed that they β€œare said to be the tallest and most beautiful of all men” (Histories III.20). Extensive trade networks across the  #Mediterranean, as well as occasional battlefield encounters, would have provided opportunities for Greeks to see – or at least hear about -- Black Africans. By the time that this vase was made, some Africans are likely to have been living in Athens, either as metics (resident aliens, with some of the privileges and duties of citizenship), or as the property of citizens. Most Athenian households would have had at least one slave, and a small number of Athenian vases show Black Africans in subservient roles. These enslaved individuals were perhaps valued as expensive commodities, and this pitcher incorporates a sought-after server into the form of a serving  #vessel.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #rome

Date: about 510 BCE

The J. Paul Getty Museum

Pitcher (Oinochoe) of an African Head This jug (oinochoe) belongs to a tradition of Greek β€œhead vases” – drinking or pouring vessels that incorporate a hollow mold-made head. Athenian potters and sculptors regularly used the same clay and the same kilns, and these vases – part figure, part vessel - demonstrate that the two crafts overlapped and interacted. Furthermore, the use of a mold meant that head vases could be produced in series, and other examples have been attributed to the same workshop that produced the Getty vase. The most popular face for fifth-century Athenian head vases is that of a young woman. Head vases in the form of Black Africans are much less common. Besides the use of black gloss for their skin, the faces are often rendered with stereotyped physical features - thick protruding lips, flared nostrils, and tightly-curled hair. The Greeks used the term Aithiops for peoples who lived in the #sahara and south of #Egypt. The word translates as β€œburnt face”, and mythical tales suggest that Greek awareness of Black Africans was deeply rooted. #homer described the Aethiopians as β€œblameless” (Iliad 1.423) and centuries later, the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484-425 B.C.) observed that they β€œare said to be the tallest and most beautiful of all men” (Histories III.20). Extensive trade networks across the #mediterranean, as well as occasional battlefield encounters, would have provided opportunities for Greeks to see – or at least hear about -- Black Africans. By the time that this vase was made, some Africans are likely to have been living in Athens, either as metics (resident aliens, with some of the privileges and duties of citizenship), or as the property of citizens. Most Athenian households would have had at least one slave, and a small number of Athenian vases show Black Africans in subservient roles. These enslaved individuals were perhaps valued as expensive commodities, and this pitcher incorporates a sought-after server into the form of a serving #vessel. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #rome Date: about 510 BCE The J. Paul Getty Museum

373
2
7 days ago
Buried together forever

The Lovers of Valdaro, also known as the "Valdaro  #Lovers," are a pair of human  #skeletons dated as approximately 6,000 years old. They were discovered by archaeologists at a Neolithic tomb in San Giorgio near Mantua, Italy, in 2007. The two humans appear to have died facing each other with arms around each other, thus reminiscent of a "lovers' embrace". Archaeologist Elena Maria Menotti led the excavation. The pair are a male and female no older than 20 years old at death and approximately 1.57 m (5 ft 2 in) in height. The male skeleton was found with a flint arrowhead near the neck. The female had a long flint blade along the thigh, plus two flint knives under the pelvis. Osteological examination found no evidence of violent death, no fractures, and no microtrauma, so the most likely explanation is the flint tools were buried along with the people as grave goods.

The skeletons were displayed briefly in public for the first time in September 2011 at the National Archaeological Museum of Mantua, thanks to the effort of the association Lovers in  #Mantua which was seeking a permanent home for the ancient couple. Seven years after their discovery, on 11 April 2014, they were permanently displayed inside a glass case in the museum, which is within the perimeter of the Ducal palace of Mantua. Establishing the cause of death could prove almost impossible, unless they were killed by a debilitating disease, a knife or something else that might have left marks on the bones, Menotti said. The two bodies, which cuddle closely while facing each other on their sides, were probably buried at the same time, an indication of a possible sudden and Luca Bondioli, an anthropologist from Rome said. "It's rare for two young people to die at the same time, and that makes us want to know why and who they were, but it will be very difficult to find out." He said DNA testing could determine whether the two were related, "but that still leaves other hypotheses; the Romeo and Juliet possibility is just one of many."

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #rome

Ducal palace of Mantua

Buried together forever The Lovers of Valdaro, also known as the "Valdaro #lovers," are a pair of human #skeletons dated as approximately 6,000 years old. They were discovered by archaeologists at a Neolithic tomb in San Giorgio near Mantua, Italy, in 2007. The two humans appear to have died facing each other with arms around each other, thus reminiscent of a "lovers' embrace". Archaeologist Elena Maria Menotti led the excavation. The pair are a male and female no older than 20 years old at death and approximately 1.57 m (5 ft 2 in) in height. The male skeleton was found with a flint arrowhead near the neck. The female had a long flint blade along the thigh, plus two flint knives under the pelvis. Osteological examination found no evidence of violent death, no fractures, and no microtrauma, so the most likely explanation is the flint tools were buried along with the people as grave goods. The skeletons were displayed briefly in public for the first time in September 2011 at the National Archaeological Museum of Mantua, thanks to the effort of the association Lovers in #mantua which was seeking a permanent home for the ancient couple. Seven years after their discovery, on 11 April 2014, they were permanently displayed inside a glass case in the museum, which is within the perimeter of the Ducal palace of Mantua. Establishing the cause of death could prove almost impossible, unless they were killed by a debilitating disease, a knife or something else that might have left marks on the bones, Menotti said. The two bodies, which cuddle closely while facing each other on their sides, were probably buried at the same time, an indication of a possible sudden and Luca Bondioli, an anthropologist from Rome said. "It's rare for two young people to die at the same time, and that makes us want to know why and who they were, but it will be very difficult to find out." He said DNA testing could determine whether the two were related, "but that still leaves other hypotheses; the Romeo and Juliet possibility is just one of many." β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancientarcheology #rome Ducal palace of Mantua

708
3
7 days ago