This is an account that focuses on the fascinating history of the ancient world. Follow me for more content, I will be posting daily. β˜₯ Όρα το μέλλον
British soldiers rest inside the old Acropolis Museum during the Christmas of 1944, Athens, Greece 

In this photo British paratroopers relax in off-duty hours in their billet in the Old Acropolis Museum of  #Athens. The Old  #Acropolis Museum  was an archaeological museum located in Athens, Greece on the archeological site of Acropolis. It is built in a niche at the eastern edge of the rock and most of it lies beneath the level of the hilltop, making it largely invisible. It was considered one of the major archaeological museums in Athens. The museum was home to many of the  #Greek world's ancient relics found in and around the Acropolis of Athens since excavations started. It was designed by architect Panagis Kalkos and was constructed between 1865 and 1874. In June 2007 the old museum closed its doors so that its antiquities could be moved to their new home, which opened on 20 June 2009. Most of the Museum's treasures were removed for safekeeping during the German  #occupation. The photo was taken during the December of 1944, after the liberation of Athens from the  #N*zis and the beginning of Greek Civil War. The British were there to ensure that Greek people's liberation army (ELAS) would not prevail. ELAS was the military arm of the left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM) during the period of the Greek resistance against the N*zis until February 1945 when it was disarmed and disbanded.

The man that took those photos was Dmitri  #Kessel. Kessel was a photojournalist and staff photographer on Life magazine known for his courageous coverage of war on the front line, including reports on the liberation of  #Europe and conflict in the Congo.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: 1944

πŸ›οΈOld Acropolis Museum, Greece

British soldiers rest inside the old Acropolis Museum during the Christmas of 1944, Athens, Greece In this photo British paratroopers relax in off-duty hours in their billet in the Old Acropolis Museum of #athens. The Old #acropolis Museum was an archaeological museum located in Athens, Greece on the archeological site of Acropolis. It is built in a niche at the eastern edge of the rock and most of it lies beneath the level of the hilltop, making it largely invisible. It was considered one of the major archaeological museums in Athens. The museum was home to many of the #greek world's ancient relics found in and around the Acropolis of Athens since excavations started. It was designed by architect Panagis Kalkos and was constructed between 1865 and 1874. In June 2007 the old museum closed its doors so that its antiquities could be moved to their new home, which opened on 20 June 2009. Most of the Museum's treasures were removed for safekeeping during the German #occupation. The photo was taken during the December of 1944, after the liberation of Athens from the #n*zis and the beginning of Greek Civil War. The British were there to ensure that Greek people's liberation army (ELAS) would not prevail. ELAS was the military arm of the left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM) during the period of the Greek resistance against the N*zis until February 1945 when it was disarmed and disbanded. The man that took those photos was Dmitri #Kessel. Kessel was a photojournalist and staff photographer on Life magazine known for his courageous coverage of war on the front line, including reports on the liberation of #europe and conflict in the Congo. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: 1944 πŸ›οΈOld Acropolis Museum, Greece

78
0
22 days ago
Uncovering the remains of Pompeii 

This enigmatic mosaic was recently discovered in the Regio V in  #Pompeii. It features a winged half-man, half-scorpion, his hair being set alight, hovering above a coiled snake. This figure is most likely Orion.  #Orion was the great hunter of Greek mythology who was famed for his good looks and many love affairs. Either his assault of or admiration from  #Artemis resulted in the gods transforming the giant into a constellation. Referred to by such ancient writers as Hesiod and Homer, the constellation of Orion was used as an important navigation and agricultural aid throughout antiquity. Traditionally, then, Orion came from Hyria in Boeotia, and what is not disputed is that he was of fine physique, good looks, and possessed great prowess as a hunter. Orion was one of the great Greek lovers, too, said to have fathered 50 sons from sleeping with 50 nymphs.

This mosaic was been unearthed in the House of Jupiter. The House of  #Jupiter was already partly excavated between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and rather compromised in several places by tunnels and trenches, still visible, used to carry out excavations in Bourbon times. The name of the house derives from a small picture of Jupiter found in the early 19th century. The excavation is revealing a residence with a central atrium, surrounded by decorated rooms, an entrance along the alley of balconies, also recently discovered, and at the bottom an open colonnaded space overlooked by three other rooms. The reception areas around the atrium have revealed a rich decoration in the first Pompeiian style, with panels of stucco imitating marble slabs painted in bright colours (red, black, yellow, green) and, preserved in some places, a rich stucco frame with serrated mouldings.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: late 2nd century AD

πŸ›οΈPompeii, Italy

Uncovering the remains of Pompeii This enigmatic mosaic was recently discovered in the Regio V in #Pompeii. It features a winged half-man, half-scorpion, his hair being set alight, hovering above a coiled snake. This figure is most likely Orion. #ORION was the great hunter of Greek mythology who was famed for his good looks and many love affairs. Either his assault of or admiration from #artemis resulted in the gods transforming the giant into a constellation. Referred to by such ancient writers as Hesiod and Homer, the constellation of Orion was used as an important navigation and agricultural aid throughout antiquity. Traditionally, then, Orion came from Hyria in Boeotia, and what is not disputed is that he was of fine physique, good looks, and possessed great prowess as a hunter. Orion was one of the great Greek lovers, too, said to have fathered 50 sons from sleeping with 50 nymphs. This mosaic was been unearthed in the House of Jupiter. The House of #jupiter was already partly excavated between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and rather compromised in several places by tunnels and trenches, still visible, used to carry out excavations in Bourbon times. The name of the house derives from a small picture of Jupiter found in the early 19th century. The excavation is revealing a residence with a central atrium, surrounded by decorated rooms, an entrance along the alley of balconies, also recently discovered, and at the bottom an open colonnaded space overlooked by three other rooms. The reception areas around the atrium have revealed a rich decoration in the first Pompeiian style, with panels of stucco imitating marble slabs painted in bright colours (red, black, yellow, green) and, preserved in some places, a rich stucco frame with serrated mouldings. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: late 2nd century AD πŸ›οΈPompeii, Italy

2 393
16
23 days ago
The Mystery Around Shipwreck Of Columns And Sarcophagi possibly coming from the grand Colonnaded Courtyard, built by King Herod in Caesarea, Judea 

Among the most significant trade and marine centers since the ancient times near  #Methoni at the first leg of the  #Peloponnese peninsula in  #Greece, the island of Sapienza has been the witness of many shipwrecks as a navy passage connecting Italy to the Middle East. As the waters in the area were very dangerous, there are dozens of shipwrecks at the bottom of the sea, including the two ancient of the Granite Columns and the Roman Sarcophagi, which are of great importance to archaeologists. Around 1920, local fishermen located archaeological findings at the seabed near the north cape of Sapienza, off the coast of Methoni at a depth of 10 meters. Five years later, following local fishermen's directions, Dionysios Potaris, history researcher and lawyer, traced and documented the marbles that were lying at a small distance from the north coast. He was the first who formed the opinion that this was the wreckage of a vessel transporting antiquities. The  #Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, a special department of the Greek Ministry of Culture which is responsible for the preservation of ancient relics under sea, proceeded with systematic research in the late 1970s. According to archaeologists, this sunken vessel could date at the Roman period, since a Roman amphora was discovered close to the columns scattered in an area of about 30 square meters.

Studies of the column fragments showed that the columns were part of a building containing 16 columns from the grand Colonnaded Courtyard, built by King  #Herod in  #Caesarea, Judea in the first century AD. One can see that some columns are placed on the seabed one next to the other, in the same way, while others have been scattered. Archaeologists say they might have been placed in the sunken vessel. The material that they were made from can be found in  #Egypt.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: 3rd century AD

The Mystery Around Shipwreck Of Columns And Sarcophagi possibly coming from the grand Colonnaded Courtyard, built by King Herod in Caesarea, Judea Among the most significant trade and marine centers since the ancient times near #methoni at the first leg of the #peloponnese peninsula in #greece, the island of Sapienza has been the witness of many shipwrecks as a navy passage connecting Italy to the Middle East. As the waters in the area were very dangerous, there are dozens of shipwrecks at the bottom of the sea, including the two ancient of the Granite Columns and the Roman Sarcophagi, which are of great importance to archaeologists. Around 1920, local fishermen located archaeological findings at the seabed near the north cape of Sapienza, off the coast of Methoni at a depth of 10 meters. Five years later, following local fishermen's directions, Dionysios Potaris, history researcher and lawyer, traced and documented the marbles that were lying at a small distance from the north coast. He was the first who formed the opinion that this was the wreckage of a vessel transporting antiquities. The #greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, a special department of the Greek Ministry of Culture which is responsible for the preservation of ancient relics under sea, proceeded with systematic research in the late 1970s. According to archaeologists, this sunken vessel could date at the Roman period, since a Roman amphora was discovered close to the columns scattered in an area of about 30 square meters. Studies of the column fragments showed that the columns were part of a building containing 16 columns from the grand Colonnaded Courtyard, built by King #herod in #Caesarea, Judea in the first century AD. One can see that some columns are placed on the seabed one next to the other, in the same way, while others have been scattered. Archaeologists say they might have been placed in the sunken vessel. The material that they were made from can be found in #egypt. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: 3rd century AD

704
1
23 days ago
The oldest throne room in Europe

The Minoan Palace at Knossos is over 20,000 square meters and the largest of all  #Minoan palatial structures. It was built of ashlar blocks, had many floors and was decorated with really beautiful frescoes. The old palace was built around 2,000 BC but was destroyed by an earthquake in 1700 BC. The newer, more complex palace, was built almost immediately after the first one was destroyed. In the middle of the 15th Century BC, the Achaeans took over the island of  #Crete and settled in the palace. The palace was once again destroyed by fire in the middle of the 14th Century B.C and henceforth ceased to function as a palatial center. The palace had three separate liquid management systems, one for supply, one for drainage of rainwater and one for drainage of wastewater. Aqueducts brought fresh water to Kephala hill which branched to the palace and to the town. Water was given to the palace by gravity feed through terra cotta pipes to fountains and spigots. Sanitation drainage was being done through a closed system leading to a sewer near the hill. Legend has it that this palace was the source of the Labyrinth myth. It was a structure that was made by King Minos of Crete, to keep away the mythical creature Minotaur, who was half bull and half man. Eventually, the creature was killed by Theseus.

In the palace of  #Knossos, at the centre of Minoan civilization, a magnificent throne room built during the 15th century BC is considered the oldest such room in Europe. The throne room was unearthed in 1900 by British archaeologist Arthur  #Evans, during the first phase of his excavations in Knossos. It was found in the center of the palatial complex and west of the central court. The chamber contains an alabaster seat on the north wall, identified by Evans as a β€œthrone,” while two Griffins resting on each side are gazing at it, seemingly paying obeisance to the figure who sits there.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: 15th century BCE

πŸ›οΈKnossos Palace, Crete, Greece

The oldest throne room in Europe The Minoan Palace at Knossos is over 20,000 square meters and the largest of all #minoan palatial structures. It was built of ashlar blocks, had many floors and was decorated with really beautiful frescoes. The old palace was built around 2,000 BC but was destroyed by an earthquake in 1700 BC. The newer, more complex palace, was built almost immediately after the first one was destroyed. In the middle of the 15th Century BC, the Achaeans took over the island of #crete and settled in the palace. The palace was once again destroyed by fire in the middle of the 14th Century B.C and henceforth ceased to function as a palatial center. The palace had three separate liquid management systems, one for supply, one for drainage of rainwater and one for drainage of wastewater. Aqueducts brought fresh water to Kephala hill which branched to the palace and to the town. Water was given to the palace by gravity feed through terra cotta pipes to fountains and spigots. Sanitation drainage was being done through a closed system leading to a sewer near the hill. Legend has it that this palace was the source of the Labyrinth myth. It was a structure that was made by King Minos of Crete, to keep away the mythical creature Minotaur, who was half bull and half man. Eventually, the creature was killed by Theseus. In the palace of #Knossos, at the centre of Minoan civilization, a magnificent throne room built during the 15th century BC is considered the oldest such room in Europe. The throne room was unearthed in 1900 by British archaeologist Arthur #evans, during the first phase of his excavations in Knossos. It was found in the center of the palatial complex and west of the central court. The chamber contains an alabaster seat on the north wall, identified by Evans as a β€œthrone,” while two Griffins resting on each side are gazing at it, seemingly paying obeisance to the figure who sits there. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: 15th century BCE πŸ›οΈKnossos Palace, Crete, Greece

2 757
25
24 days ago
Photo depicting the Western Buddha of Bamiyan (in Afghanistan), a now destroyed sculpture

In this beautiful picture we can see one of the monumental carved statues of Gautama Buddha from  #Bamyan Valley of Afghanistan; which dates to 618 AD and oftenly known as Western Buddha. The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two 6th-century monumental statues of Vairocana Buddha and Gautama Buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley of central Afghanistan, 130 kilometres (81 mi) northwest of Kabul at an elevation of 2,500 metres. Carbon dating of the structural components of the Buddhas has determined that the smaller 38 m "Eastern  #Buddha" was built around 570 AD, and the larger 55 m "Western Buddha" was built around 618 AD. Both images were carved into niches of the cliff side in high relief. The area near the heads of both Buddha figures and the area around the larger Buddha’s feet were carved in the round, allowing worshippers to circumambulate. Circumambulation, which is the act of walking around an object such as a stupa (a reliquary mound) or an image of the Buddha, is a common practice in Buddhist worship.

In 2001, Mullah Omar ordered  #Taliban forces to demolish the Bamiyan Buddhas. As reported in The Guardian, the destruction took several weeks, and the two figures β€œproved remarkably solid. Anti-aircraft guns had little effect, so the engineers placed anti-tank mines between their feet, then bored holes into their heads and packed them with dynamite.” Only outlines of the figures and a few details now remain in place; fragments of them  are piled nearby. The Taliban’s direction to destroy the Buddha images was motivated, in part, by the group’s extreme iconoclastic campaign as well as their disdain for the fact that money from western countries was being spent on protecting the images while there was an intense and growing need for humanitarian aid in the region. It was also unquestionably an act designed to gain global media attention, as video and photographs of the destruction circulated quickly and were seen all over the world.

Photo immortalized by American photojournalist @stevemccurryofficial, the year of 1992.

 #Afganistan  #History

Photo depicting the Western Buddha of Bamiyan (in Afghanistan), a now destroyed sculpture In this beautiful picture we can see one of the monumental carved statues of Gautama Buddha from #bamyan Valley of Afghanistan; which dates to 618 AD and oftenly known as Western Buddha. The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two 6th-century monumental statues of Vairocana Buddha and Gautama Buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley of central Afghanistan, 130 kilometres (81 mi) northwest of Kabul at an elevation of 2,500 metres. Carbon dating of the structural components of the Buddhas has determined that the smaller 38 m "Eastern #buddha" was built around 570 AD, and the larger 55 m "Western Buddha" was built around 618 AD. Both images were carved into niches of the cliff side in high relief. The area near the heads of both Buddha figures and the area around the larger Buddha’s feet were carved in the round, allowing worshippers to circumambulate. Circumambulation, which is the act of walking around an object such as a stupa (a reliquary mound) or an image of the Buddha, is a common practice in Buddhist worship. In 2001, Mullah Omar ordered #Taliban forces to demolish the Bamiyan Buddhas. As reported in The Guardian, the destruction took several weeks, and the two figures β€œproved remarkably solid. Anti-aircraft guns had little effect, so the engineers placed anti-tank mines between their feet, then bored holes into their heads and packed them with dynamite.” Only outlines of the figures and a few details now remain in place; fragments of them are piled nearby. The Taliban’s direction to destroy the Buddha images was motivated, in part, by the group’s extreme iconoclastic campaign as well as their disdain for the fact that money from western countries was being spent on protecting the images while there was an intense and growing need for humanitarian aid in the region. It was also unquestionably an act designed to gain global media attention, as video and photographs of the destruction circulated quickly and were seen all over the world. Photo immortalized by American photojournalist @stevemccurryofficial, the year of 1992. #afganistan #history

1 773
44
24 days ago
New skeleton found in Pompeii, proves that Greek was used in the ancient city of Pompeii

Archaeologists have uncovered a well-preserved skeleton at a burial site in  #Pompeii which has shed new light on funeral rites and cultural activity in the doomed, ancient Roman city, officials said on Tuesday. The body of a man, believed to be in his 60s, was found in a tomb which dated back to the final decades of Pompeii, before it was destroyed by the Vesuvius volcano in 79 AD. A commemorative inscription in the tomb named the man as Marcus Venerius Secundio and made references to him delivering theater performances at Pompeii in Greek. It was the first time that archaeologists have found definitive evidence of  #Greek β€” the lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean at the time β€” being used in performances in the city alongside Latin. Adults were normally cremated in Pompeii at the time, so the burial of Marcus Venerius is seen as highly unusual. Archaeologists are investigating whether the man might have been embalmed ahead of burial. Certain textiles are known to have been used in embalming and fragments of what might be fabric have been found at the site.

Marcus Venerius's name appears in another city archive, which identified him as a public slave and a custodian of the Temple of  #Venus. According to the inscription, after being freed, he joined the college of priests dedicated to the Imperial  #Cult β€” a group that saw members of the Roman emperor and his family as gods. His imposing tomb suggests he had reached a certain social and economic status before his death.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: 1st century AD

Photos Via: @pompeii_parco_archeologico

πŸ›οΈPompeii, Italy

New skeleton found in Pompeii, proves that Greek was used in the ancient city of Pompeii Archaeologists have uncovered a well-preserved skeleton at a burial site in #Pompeii which has shed new light on funeral rites and cultural activity in the doomed, ancient Roman city, officials said on Tuesday. The body of a man, believed to be in his 60s, was found in a tomb which dated back to the final decades of Pompeii, before it was destroyed by the Vesuvius volcano in 79 AD. A commemorative inscription in the tomb named the man as Marcus Venerius Secundio and made references to him delivering theater performances at Pompeii in Greek. It was the first time that archaeologists have found definitive evidence of #greek β€” the lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean at the time β€” being used in performances in the city alongside Latin. Adults were normally cremated in Pompeii at the time, so the burial of Marcus Venerius is seen as highly unusual. Archaeologists are investigating whether the man might have been embalmed ahead of burial. Certain textiles are known to have been used in embalming and fragments of what might be fabric have been found at the site. Marcus Venerius's name appears in another city archive, which identified him as a public slave and a custodian of the Temple of #Venus. According to the inscription, after being freed, he joined the college of priests dedicated to the Imperial #cult β€” a group that saw members of the Roman emperor and his family as gods. His imposing tomb suggests he had reached a certain social and economic status before his death. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: 1st century AD Photos Via: @pompeii_parco_archeologico πŸ›οΈPompeii, Italy

883
13
25 days ago
An oracular statement that destroyed an Empire

Croesus (pronounced 'KREE-sus') was the King of Lydia, a country in western Asia Minor (corresponding to modern-day  #Turkey) from 560-547 BCE and was so wealthy that the old expression "as rich as Croesus" originates in reference to him. His wealth, it is said, came from the sands of the River Pactolus in which the legendary King Midas washed his hands to rid himself of the 'Midas Touch.

 #Croesus at some point decided to wage a campaign against Cyrus the Great of  #Persia. So Croesus sent messengers to the oracle of Delphi with the following question:

Should he go to war with the Persians?

The Delphic Oracle replied as follows:

If Croesus goes to war, he will destroy a great empire.

When Croesus received this answer from the Pythian Priestess of Delphi, he was pleased he sent her more gifts. Then he asked another question:

Would he reign for many years as king of  #Lydia?

Her reply was:

When a mule becomes leader of the Mede
Then, oh Lord, it is time to flee

This reply pleased Croesus even more because he reasoned that the Medes would never choose a mule for their leader and he would not have to flee. He apparently forgot that Cyrus, was half Mede (by his mother), half Persian (by his father) and therefore could be considered a "mule". Also, on the advice of the oracle, he made a treaty of friendship with the Greeks who lived in Sparta. The Spartans were the toughest and most warlike nation among the Greeks and might be useful to him in time of need. Croesus was intercepted near the Halys River in central Anatolia and an inconclusive battle was fought at Pteria. It was the usual practice in those days for the armies to disband for winter and Croesus did so accordingly. Cyrus did not, however, and he attacked and defeated Croesus in Thymbria and later in Sardis, eventually capturing him. It became clear that the powerful empire destroyed by the war was Croesus's own. 

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

🎨Gilles Ketting / El OrÑculo

An oracular statement that destroyed an Empire Croesus (pronounced 'KREE-sus') was the King of Lydia, a country in western Asia Minor (corresponding to modern-day #turkey) from 560-547 BCE and was so wealthy that the old expression "as rich as Croesus" originates in reference to him. His wealth, it is said, came from the sands of the River Pactolus in which the legendary King Midas washed his hands to rid himself of the 'Midas Touch. #croesus at some point decided to wage a campaign against Cyrus the Great of #Persia. So Croesus sent messengers to the oracle of Delphi with the following question: Should he go to war with the Persians? The Delphic Oracle replied as follows: If Croesus goes to war, he will destroy a great empire. When Croesus received this answer from the Pythian Priestess of Delphi, he was pleased he sent her more gifts. Then he asked another question: Would he reign for many years as king of #lydia? Her reply was: When a mule becomes leader of the Mede Then, oh Lord, it is time to flee This reply pleased Croesus even more because he reasoned that the Medes would never choose a mule for their leader and he would not have to flee. He apparently forgot that Cyrus, was half Mede (by his mother), half Persian (by his father) and therefore could be considered a "mule". Also, on the advice of the oracle, he made a treaty of friendship with the Greeks who lived in Sparta. The Spartans were the toughest and most warlike nation among the Greeks and might be useful to him in time of need. Croesus was intercepted near the Halys River in central Anatolia and an inconclusive battle was fought at Pteria. It was the usual practice in those days for the armies to disband for winter and Croesus did so accordingly. Cyrus did not, however, and he attacked and defeated Croesus in Thymbria and later in Sardis, eventually capturing him. It became clear that the powerful empire destroyed by the war was Croesus's own. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities 🎨Gilles Ketting / El OrΓ‘culo

1 217
7
25 days ago
A model posing in the "bikini" girls mosaic

In 1956, Marquis Emilio Pucci designed a collection inspired by the architecture and traditions of Sicily. The name of the collection was, indeed, β€˜Siciliana’, and was one of the many the Italian designer dedicated to the beauties and peculiarities of his homeland. The collection featured dresses and shirts typical of the style of the marquis: silk and kaleidoscopic prints, all reminding details of Sicilian traditional productions and also of the past of the land, characterized by Greek and then  #Roman domination. Interestingly, the collection was also rich in bathing suits and bikinis, all very colorful and daring and headpieces inspired by the vegetation of the land.

Located just three kilometres from the Sicilian town of Piazza  #Armerina are the extensive remains of a large Roman villa, called the Villa Romana del Casale. Dating to the early fourth century AD, it contains one of the single largest collections of ancient Roman mosaics anywhere. It has been designed a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The mosaics in this villa were almost certainly made by  #African artists and designers, judging by the style and tesserae used. Of the many mosaics that decorate the floors of the various rooms and hallways in this building, one in particular has often drawn modern visitors’ attention. Located on the floor of a small room (either a private bedroom or a service room of some kind), this mosaic features a number of girls dressed in what look like ancient analogues to the modern bikinis introduced by French designers in 1946. The scene in the mosaic certainly strikes the visitor as very modern. The top part of the β€œbikini” worn by these girls consists of a breastband. Breastbands like this were already known in ancient  #Greece. The  #Greeks referred to the breastband as a mastodeton or apodesmos; the Romans called it a strophium. A breastband was often made of linen. 

This amazing shot was taken by German fashion photographer Elsa Haertter, 1956.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #Italy #Egypt

πŸ”–Date: 1956

πŸ›οΈVilla Romana del Casale

A model posing in the "bikini" girls mosaic In 1956, Marquis Emilio Pucci designed a collection inspired by the architecture and traditions of Sicily. The name of the collection was, indeed, β€˜Siciliana’, and was one of the many the Italian designer dedicated to the beauties and peculiarities of his homeland. The collection featured dresses and shirts typical of the style of the marquis: silk and kaleidoscopic prints, all reminding details of Sicilian traditional productions and also of the past of the land, characterized by Greek and then #roman domination. Interestingly, the collection was also rich in bathing suits and bikinis, all very colorful and daring and headpieces inspired by the vegetation of the land. Located just three kilometres from the Sicilian town of Piazza #Armerina are the extensive remains of a large Roman villa, called the Villa Romana del Casale. Dating to the early fourth century AD, it contains one of the single largest collections of ancient Roman mosaics anywhere. It has been designed a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The mosaics in this villa were almost certainly made by #african artists and designers, judging by the style and tesserae used. Of the many mosaics that decorate the floors of the various rooms and hallways in this building, one in particular has often drawn modern visitors’ attention. Located on the floor of a small room (either a private bedroom or a service room of some kind), this mosaic features a number of girls dressed in what look like ancient analogues to the modern bikinis introduced by French designers in 1946. The scene in the mosaic certainly strikes the visitor as very modern. The top part of the β€œbikini” worn by these girls consists of a breastband. Breastbands like this were already known in ancient #Greece. The #Greeks referred to the breastband as a mastodeton or apodesmos; the Romans called it a strophium. A breastband was often made of linen. This amazing shot was taken by German fashion photographer Elsa Haertter, 1956. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #italy #egypt πŸ”–Date: 1956 πŸ›οΈVilla Romana del Casale

2 104
21
26 days ago
Attic Red-Figure Hydria depicting the daily activities of a woman in Athens during the Classical Period

Three-handled hydria with three women on the body. At the center, a seated woman to left, holding a necklace. She sits on a rock and wears a chiton. Added white is used for the binding in her hair. The woman on the left, wearing a band around her head (with added white dots) and a chiton holds out a casket (decorated with stripes and circles, topped by two white balls, perhaps fruit) with her right hand and a necklace with her left. Her counterpart on the right is similarly attired, and holds a mirror and a necklace. Ovolo pattern on mouth, neck and body. The private activities of women became an increasingly popular subject for vase painters in the second half of the fifth century bc. Here the rocky outcrop situates the figures outdoors, and rather than representing daily life, the scene may convey an imagined past.

This beautiful vase was painted by the painter of London B174. The Painter of London B174 decorated vases in the black-figure technique in  #Athens in the period around 540 B.C. The shapes of the vases that he decorated confirm that he was connected with the workshop of Group E. Scholars have assigned several amphorae decorated with mythological themes to this painter. As with most ancient artists, the true name of the Painter of London B174 is unknown. He is identified only by the stylistic traits of his work. Scholars named him for a vase of that inventory number now in the British  #Museum.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: 410–400 BCE

πŸ“Έ Photo Via: The J. Paul Getty Museum

πŸ›οΈThe J. Paul Getty Museum, USA

Attic Red-Figure Hydria depicting the daily activities of a woman in Athens during the Classical Period Three-handled hydria with three women on the body. At the center, a seated woman to left, holding a necklace. She sits on a rock and wears a chiton. Added white is used for the binding in her hair. The woman on the left, wearing a band around her head (with added white dots) and a chiton holds out a casket (decorated with stripes and circles, topped by two white balls, perhaps fruit) with her right hand and a necklace with her left. Her counterpart on the right is similarly attired, and holds a mirror and a necklace. Ovolo pattern on mouth, neck and body. The private activities of women became an increasingly popular subject for vase painters in the second half of the fifth century bc. Here the rocky outcrop situates the figures outdoors, and rather than representing daily life, the scene may convey an imagined past. This beautiful vase was painted by the painter of London B174. The Painter of London B174 decorated vases in the black-figure technique in #athens in the period around 540 B.C. The shapes of the vases that he decorated confirm that he was connected with the workshop of Group E. Scholars have assigned several amphorae decorated with mythological themes to this painter. As with most ancient artists, the true name of the Painter of London B174 is unknown. He is identified only by the stylistic traits of his work. Scholars named him for a vase of that inventory number now in the British #Museum. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: 410–400 BCE πŸ“Έ Photo Via: The J. Paul Getty Museum πŸ›οΈThe J. Paul Getty Museum, USA

770
5
26 days ago
Terracotta group of two women playing knucklebones. Capua, Campania, Italy, 330-300 BCE

This small (5.5 inches high) terracotta sculpture was made in Greek southern  #Italy in the late fourth century BCE. It depicts two adolescent girls playing the game of "knucklebones" (astragaloi in Greek). The game was usually played like the modern game of "jacks": one threw the knucklebones in the air and attempted to catch as many as possible. They were also used like modern "dice." Each of the four long sides of the knucklebone had a value: the convex side was worth 3, the concave 4, and the two flat sides 1 and 6. Most knucklebones were made out of the actual ankle bones of sheep or goats, but fancier ones were made of ivory, bronze, or terracotta. Children of both sexes, adolescent girls, and young women played knucklebones as revealed by statues like this one as well as paintings on vases. This statue is both a depiction of a game and a representation of gender ideals. Whereas girls in the nearby city-state of  #Sparta were taught to read and write and engaged in athletic competitions, those in Athens spent their girlhoods largely indoors practicing the domestic arts (e.g., spinning, weaving, cooking, and childcare).  #Athenian girls typically married at the age of 15 or so and spent the rest of their lives engaged in household activities

Both Herodotus and Plato ascribe a foreign origin to the game. Plato, in Phaedrus, names the Egyptian god  #Thoth as its inventor, while  #Herodotus relates that the Lydians, during a period of famine in the days of King Atys, originated this game.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: 330-300 BCE

πŸ›οΈBritish Museum, UK

Terracotta group of two women playing knucklebones. Capua, Campania, Italy, 330-300 BCE This small (5.5 inches high) terracotta sculpture was made in Greek southern #italy in the late fourth century BCE. It depicts two adolescent girls playing the game of "knucklebones" (astragaloi in Greek). The game was usually played like the modern game of "jacks": one threw the knucklebones in the air and attempted to catch as many as possible. They were also used like modern "dice." Each of the four long sides of the knucklebone had a value: the convex side was worth 3, the concave 4, and the two flat sides 1 and 6. Most knucklebones were made out of the actual ankle bones of sheep or goats, but fancier ones were made of ivory, bronze, or terracotta. Children of both sexes, adolescent girls, and young women played knucklebones as revealed by statues like this one as well as paintings on vases. This statue is both a depiction of a game and a representation of gender ideals. Whereas girls in the nearby city-state of #sparta were taught to read and write and engaged in athletic competitions, those in Athens spent their girlhoods largely indoors practicing the domestic arts (e.g., spinning, weaving, cooking, and childcare). #Athenian girls typically married at the age of 15 or so and spent the rest of their lives engaged in household activities Both Herodotus and Plato ascribe a foreign origin to the game. Plato, in Phaedrus, names the Egyptian god #thoth as its inventor, while #Herodotus relates that the Lydians, during a period of famine in the days of King Atys, originated this game. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: 330-300 BCE πŸ›οΈBritish Museum, UK

1 566
7
27 days ago
Ruins in the ancient Hellenistic city of Alexandria Oxiana (Ai-Khanoum), in Afghanistan

From literary sources, we can deduce that an Alexandria on the Oxus (or: in Oxiana) was founded, probably by Hephaestion, during Alexander the Great's campaigns in Bactria and Sogdia (329-327). Possibly, this was a refoundation of an older, Persian city, and was settled with Greek and Iranian veterans, together with native serfs: this was, in any case, the normal way to found a European city in the Far East. Perhaps, this city was identical to Ai Khanum in Afghanistan. (A more likely candidate is Kampyr Tepe in Uzbekistan.) "Ai Khanum" means "Lady Moon" in Uzbek (an alternative translation is "Face in the Moon", because people over there recognize a female face on the moon.) Among the finds are Greek and Indian coins, several inscriptions, sundials, jewelry, a famous silver disk showing the Phrygian goddess  #Cybele, the Greek god  #Helios, and an Iranian fire altar. Ai Khanum is situated on the confluence of the mighty Amudar'ya (the ancient Oxus) and the Kokcha rivers. Across the valley is a spectacular wall of steep rocks. The city became rich because it controlled the trade in lapis lazuli, but it was also situated on the Silk road. One of the Bactrian kings, Eucratides I (c.170-c.145) honored the city by calling it after himself,  #Eucratidia. The city's wealth attracted enemies, and it was sacked by Sacae nomads in c.135 BCE, and later by the Yuezhi nomads (who later founded the Kushan empire in the Punjab).

Among the  #Greek settlers in Ai Khanum were Thessalian cavalrymen, which appears to be confirmed by the following inscription:

These wise words of ancient men are set up,
utterances of famous men, in holy Delphi.
Clearchus copied them carefully and set them up,
shining from afar, in the sanctuary of Cineas:

As a child, be orderly,
As a youth, be self-controlled,
As an adult, be just,
As an old man, be of good counsel,
When dying, be without sorrow.

The Cineas mentioned has a  #Thessalian name. As the city's official founder (ktistes), he received a sanctuary on the market (a heroΓΆn).

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #Afghanistan  #Bactria  #History

Ruins in the ancient Hellenistic city of Alexandria Oxiana (Ai-Khanoum), in Afghanistan From literary sources, we can deduce that an Alexandria on the Oxus (or: in Oxiana) was founded, probably by Hephaestion, during Alexander the Great's campaigns in Bactria and Sogdia (329-327). Possibly, this was a refoundation of an older, Persian city, and was settled with Greek and Iranian veterans, together with native serfs: this was, in any case, the normal way to found a European city in the Far East. Perhaps, this city was identical to Ai Khanum in Afghanistan. (A more likely candidate is Kampyr Tepe in Uzbekistan.) "Ai Khanum" means "Lady Moon" in Uzbek (an alternative translation is "Face in the Moon", because people over there recognize a female face on the moon.) Among the finds are Greek and Indian coins, several inscriptions, sundials, jewelry, a famous silver disk showing the Phrygian goddess #cybele, the Greek god #helios, and an Iranian fire altar. Ai Khanum is situated on the confluence of the mighty Amudar'ya (the ancient Oxus) and the Kokcha rivers. Across the valley is a spectacular wall of steep rocks. The city became rich because it controlled the trade in lapis lazuli, but it was also situated on the Silk road. One of the Bactrian kings, Eucratides I (c.170-c.145) honored the city by calling it after himself, #Eucratidia. The city's wealth attracted enemies, and it was sacked by Sacae nomads in c.135 BCE, and later by the Yuezhi nomads (who later founded the Kushan empire in the Punjab). Among the #greek settlers in Ai Khanum were Thessalian cavalrymen, which appears to be confirmed by the following inscription: These wise words of ancient men are set up, utterances of famous men, in holy Delphi. Clearchus copied them carefully and set them up, shining from afar, in the sanctuary of Cineas: As a child, be orderly, As a youth, be self-controlled, As an adult, be just, As an old man, be of good counsel, When dying, be without sorrow. The Cineas mentioned has a #Thessalian name. As the city's official founder (ktistes), he received a sanctuary on the market (a heroΓΆn). β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #afghanistan #bactria #history

1 588
9
27 days ago
A carbonised loaf of bread from Pompeii

The loaf is round and plump, like a  #cake, and divided into eight wedges. But it is unmistakably bread, and rather appetising, too. Which is extraordinary, considering that it was put in the oven to bake one morning in Herculaneum nearly 2,000 years ago. The baker left his stamp. His name was β€œCeler, slave of Quintus Granius Verus”. For all the distance of years, the food of Pompeii seems sunny and alive. We know that these ancients ate broad beans, olives, peaches, dates, almonds, sour cherries, crab apples, pears and walnuts. Consider fish, instead. A mosaic found in  #Pompeii depicts a huge range of octopus, squid, lobster, prawn, eel, bass, red mullet, dogfish, ray, and some kind of snail-like mollusc: quite a plateau de fruits de mer. Pompeians were also excessively fond of a salty fish sauce called  #garum, similar to Thai fish sauce. Beginning in the year 168 B.C., the Romans legislated and formed the first baker’s guild, known as the Collegium Pistorum. The word pistorum comes from the phrase to grind so the guild members not only baked but also milled grains. Soon after the formation of the guild, the Roman government took control; bread became a regulated public commodity with price increases requiring high levels of legislative approval. There are many documented pleas sent to various Emperors asking for an increase in the subsidized bread prices.

Some types of  #bread were decorated with anise, poppy seeds, sesame and other trees established on the crust with egg white. It seems that only in the late-Republican began to use the yeast, obtained by mixing millet or bran flour to sour. The ovens were made of bricks (opus latericiumcium), while the floor of the bakery was made of slabs of basalt lava, the same material used to pave roads, which facilitate the revolution of animals or slaves who pushed the millstones tied to wooden beams.

β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”
Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds

⁣⁣⁣ #France #Athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #Italy #egypt  #fayumportraits #summer  #antiquity  #antiquities

πŸ”–Date: 79 AD

πŸ“Έ Photo Via: innuendopl (imgur)

πŸ›οΈPompeii Archeological Park, Italy

A carbonised loaf of bread from Pompeii The loaf is round and plump, like a #cake, and divided into eight wedges. But it is unmistakably bread, and rather appetising, too. Which is extraordinary, considering that it was put in the oven to bake one morning in Herculaneum nearly 2,000 years ago. The baker left his stamp. His name was β€œCeler, slave of Quintus Granius Verus”. For all the distance of years, the food of Pompeii seems sunny and alive. We know that these ancients ate broad beans, olives, peaches, dates, almonds, sour cherries, crab apples, pears and walnuts. Consider fish, instead. A mosaic found in #Pompeii depicts a huge range of octopus, squid, lobster, prawn, eel, bass, red mullet, dogfish, ray, and some kind of snail-like mollusc: quite a plateau de fruits de mer. Pompeians were also excessively fond of a salty fish sauce called #Garum, similar to Thai fish sauce. Beginning in the year 168 B.C., the Romans legislated and formed the first baker’s guild, known as the Collegium Pistorum. The word pistorum comes from the phrase to grind so the guild members not only baked but also milled grains. Soon after the formation of the guild, the Roman government took control; bread became a regulated public commodity with price increases requiring high levels of legislative approval. There are many documented pleas sent to various Emperors asking for an increase in the subsidized bread prices. Some types of #bread were decorated with anise, poppy seeds, sesame and other trees established on the crust with egg white. It seems that only in the late-Republican began to use the yeast, obtained by mixing millet or bran flour to sour. The ovens were made of bricks (opus latericiumcium), while the floor of the bakery was made of slabs of basalt lava, the same material used to pave roads, which facilitate the revolution of animals or slaves who pushed the millstones tied to wooden beams. β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€”β€” Twitter: @ArchaicWorlds ⁣⁣⁣ #france #athens #ancientegypt #ancientrome #ancientgreece #ancient #ancientarcheology #rome #istanbul #italy #egypt #fayumportraits #summer #antiquity #antiquities πŸ”–Date: 79 AD πŸ“Έ Photo Via: innuendopl (imgur) πŸ›οΈPompeii Archeological Park, Italy

2 508
24
28 days ago